Multi-variate regression infographic – Jon, Lucas, Bahnu

We would explain the relationship between a dependent variable – the likelihood a voter will select democrat on the election date – and three independent variables – minority status, gender, and urban/rural. We would run multivariate regression. This is a statistical tool used to explain a dependent variable with 2 or more independent variables. A mulitivariate regression allows us to isolate the effect of one dependent, while controlling for the effects of other independent variable. We would utilize the research from the NES 2008 and GSS 2008 election polling data. We would run this data through SPSS software suite. SPSS provides clear visual data that can be adapted to an infographic. This data is produced every presidential election and is utilized by analytic social scientists. We would articulate this data via an infographic. Stastical analysis seems easiest to comprehend with visual cues and data. The conclusion we would probably arrive at is: an individual has a higher statistical likelihood to vote democrat, if they are a woman, live in an urban/city, or are a minority. The intended audience would be college educated statisticians/those who enjoy infographics

Adventure Through Boise, Corey, Katie, Caitlin, Nicole, Hanna, Lucas

Start at the outlet mall, a rather dilapidated area.  Throughout the rest of the tour, you will see all the grandeur of modern Boise and the rustic beauty of historic Boise.  Get on the highway to federal where you will see an up and coming area.  This also provides an overview of the city as a whole.  One point of interest is the train depot, a historic landmark.  Then get onto vista which becomes capital.  Here you will see  the historic Capitol building based off of its national counterpart.  You will pass the basque district.  Then turn onto an established road, state street.  Take A Right onto thirteenth street, one of the oldest school buildings in boise which will take you into Hyde park.   Then take a left on lemp Followed by a left on Harrison which will show  the grandeur of boises historic homes. Then take a right onto state street which solder some older building.  This is important because it runs along the river, a source of life for the town as a whole.  Here you can see the development of agriculture and industry along the river.  Take a right onto old state street to go through downtown, historic eagle.  Then take a left on eagle road where you can see the modern developing of Idaho after crossing the river.  This is the growing part of Boise.  Take a left onto fair view and take a right onto Milwaukee where you will see the mall, follow this to the Connector.  Here you can see table rock and some of the historic churches.

Research Project Plan-Lucas Sprouse

The Democratization of Chile in the Twentieth Century

Introduction: The people of Chile experienced political, social and economic upheaval during the twentieth century.  In the latter half of the century, World War II, globalization, and the Cold War affected the nation of Chile in spite of her distance from the world powers.  Chile experienced autocratic rule as well as democratic rule following World War II.  Nonetheless, as evidenced by the expanding freedoms and rights seen in Chilean constitutions, Chile became more democratic in the latter half of the twentieth century.  Despite the many trials and tribulations Chilean democracy experienced in the fifty year post-war period, the Chilean people gained rights and freedoms.  The increased rights and freedoms guaranteed by Chilean constitutions, the opening of political channels, and increased stability contributed to the democratization of Chile.

First Primary Source: 1925 Constitution of Chile: The Chilean Constitution of 1925 granted numerous rights to their citizens that served to meet the needs of an increasingly diversified Chile, while maintaining a traditional democratic structure.  This Constitution was created by centrists and rightists, along with the assent of military dictator General Ibanez, to ensure Marxist-leaning reform candidates like Fortunato Alessandri Palma would never be elected again.  While this Constitution does create a rather centralized, executive-dependent government, the numerous rights and freedoms granted to the Chilean people are important nonetheless.

Democracy Disrupted by Allende: In 1970, Salvador Allende, a far-left-leaning communist who espoused socialist values for political practicality, headed the leftist Popular Unity coalition and won with 36 percent of the vote.  Allende failed to create consensus or support for his socialist program; nonetheless, he began implementing widespread change in Chilean society.  Allende suspended constitutional guarantees to ensure that socialist economic policies would indeed supplant capitalism which fomented violent uprisings throughout the nation.

Democracy Denied by Pinochet: In response to Allende’s liberal policies degrading Chilean society, staunch conservative General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte led a military coup d’état in September 1973.  He dissolved political parties, proscribed unions, established strict censorship, and strived to establish an unrestrained free market economy whereby import duties were slashed, price controls lifted, businesses privatized, foreign investment courted, and government spending significantly cut.  Most significantly, Pinochet suspended the Constitution, opting instead to rule solely by decree.  With no constitution in place, Pinochet literally crushed the Chilean left by creating the National Intelligence Directorate Administration which exiled, imprisoned, tortured, and killed thousands of left-leaning Chileans.

Second Primary Source: 1980 Constitution of Chile: After Pinochet effectively purged Chilean society of leftist thought, he legitimized his dictatorial rule by creating the 1980 Constitution of Chile, formally retiring from the Army, and “allowing” the junta to appoint him as President.  All of these democratic changes were confirmed in a national plebiscite, a balloted referendum.

Third Primary Source: 1989 Constitution of Chile: In October 1988, Pinochet gave the Chilean people an opportunity to vote on the unconditional prolongation of his term by plebiscite.  Those voting “no” to the reelection and subsequent unconditional prolongation of Pinochet’s presidential term won by less than ten percent and presidential elections were held in December 1989.  After the election, Pinochet reformed his 1980 Constitution in order to maintain the changes he had instituted in Chilean society while ensuring its viability as well as his personal safety.

  • This 1989 Constitution of Chile was nearly identical to its 1980 predecessor.
  • Pinochet reclaimed his position as the leader of the Army and initially succeeded in making it impossible to try any member of the armed forces for human rights abuses.
  • The civil government and the military became independent once again.
  • An autonomous judiciary and an empowered legislative branch now checked the president’s powers.
  • Dissident opinions were no longer outlawed, and representation was increased.
  • Full fledge democracy had returned to Chile.

Democracy Ensured: With a vote paralleling the plebiscite results, Patricio Aylwin, backed by the Concentration of Parties for Democracy coalition, assumed the presidency in 1990 as full democracy was again established in Chile.  The fact that Pinochet allowed Aylwin to assume the presidency serves to demonstrate the depth of Chile’s democratic roots.  Aylwin reestablished constitutional democracy in Chile, and all Chileans began to enjoy the fruits of democracy once again.

Conclusion: Despite the social, political, and economic turmoil Chileans experienced after World War II, democratic liberties guaranteed by Chileans constitutions ensured that the Chilean people enjoy expanded rights and freedoms.  Chile encountered dictatorial autocrats, military coup d’états, and oppressive regimes in the fifty year post-war period.  Chileans have overcome seemingly insurmountable odds to gain expanded freedoms and rights.  Augusto Pinochet institutionally oppressed the left during his dictatorial rule.  Despite this overt breach of democracy, the 1988 plebiscite reestablished constitutional democracy.  Once the constitution was amended to permit dissident opinions and ensure democratic rights and freedoms, all Chileans gained democratic liberties.  A shift from autocracy to democracy most definitely occurred in Chile.  Chileans no longer live under repressive, dictatorial autocrats who ignore and suspend constitutions as they see fit; democratic rights and freedoms now exist in Chile.  Increased economic, political, and social stability allowed democracy to take root in Chile.  As evidenced by the increased rights and freedoms guaranteed by Chilean constitutions, democracy indeed strengthened in the late twentieth century.  The citizens of Chile overcame oppressive dictatorial regimes led by repressive autocrats in order to enjoy democratic liberties and a better life; democracy has taken hold of Chile.


Primary Sources

Constitucion Politica de la Republica de Chile 1925.” 1925 Chilean Constitution. Universidad de Chile, Fuentes Documentales y Bibliograficas para el Estudio de la Historia,,1389,SCID%253D10741%2526ISID%253D417%2526PRT%253D10717%2526JNID%253D12,00.html, Accessed Oct. 7, 2012.

Constitucion Politica de la Republica de Chile 1980.” 1980 Chilean Constitution. Universidad de Chile, Fuentes Documentales y Bibliograficas para el Estudio de la Historia,1389,SCID%253D10741%2526ISID%253D417%2526PRT%253D10717%2526JNID%253D12,00.html, Accessed Oct. 7, 2012.

Constitucion Politica de la Republica de Chile 1989.” 1989 Chilean Constitution. Political Database of the Americas. Georgetown University, Center for Latin American Studies. Accessed Oct. 7, 2012.

Secondary Sources with Annotations

Angell, Alan. Democracy After Pinochet: Politics, Parties and Elections in Chile. London: Institute for the Study of the Americas, 2007.

This book explains the implications of Pinochet’s autocratic rule in Chile and the landmark plebiscite of 1988.  The book also explains how Pinochet maintained some control of Chile even after the plebiscite.  The book further illustrates how the left and right counteract each other through the use of broad based coalitions.

Brands, Hal. Latin America’s Cold War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2010.

This book explains the overall atmosphere in Latin America following World War II, the impact of globalization in Latin America, and the fight between socialism/communism and democracy throughout the world.  The book also explains that the region was suffering from social and economic instability that allowed political upheaval to occur.  The insights regarding Chilean economics and politics shed light on how Ibanez and Pinochet were able to gain control.

Calvert, Peter and Susan. Latin America in the Twentieth Century. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.

This book highlights individual Latin American countries, including Chile, attempting to explain how Latin America changed throughout the twentieth century.  The book has extensive sections on Allende and Pinochet, explaining how both men impacted Chile as a whole.  The book also explains the implications of Chile’s constitutions for the Chilean people.

Garreton, Manuel Antonio. Incomplete Democracy: Political Democratization in Chile and Latin
. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2003

This book helps to provide a historical and political context with which to view Chile.  The book really stresses the importance of social movements and political coalitions in Chile.  This book also helps to explain how Chile can be viewed in relation to Latin America as a whole.

Smith, Peter H. Democracy in Latin America: Political Change in Comparative Perspective.  London: Oxford University Press, 2005.

This book explains the many factors influencing political change in Latin America, including Chile.  The book illustrates the importance of stability, economics, the Catholic Church, political parties, and other social movements in Latin America.

Digital Reflection: Before I began researching for this project, I had great aspirations about studying the democratization of Latin America as a whole.  I searched around the internet and found a few databases that looked promising.  After sifting through the unorganized databases that kept switching between English and Spanish, I realized that I needed to narrow in on a specific nation if I ever wanted to find worthwhile documents.  I tried searching for Argentina and I was able to find three of their constitutions from the twentieth century, but I could not find the other two.  I looked into Venezuela and could only locate a couple of their constitutions!  Most Latin American countries have had around ten constitutions throughout the twentieth century.  I kept being directed to excerpts instead of full fledge constitutions; this truly became annoying!  The biggest problem with solely using digitized primary sources is the limitations that exist.  Excerpts, usually the part deemed important by the digitizer, are readily available; however, finding full text historical documents are few and far between.

After searching for constitutions from a few more countries, I decided to choose a country that had relatively few constitutions in the twentieth century, in hopes of being able to actually locate them all.  I then found a hyperlink to a university website claiming to house important Chilean documents in a digital format.  This website was very hard to navigate and placed one constitution in the historical documents section, but placed another constitution in the founding texts section.  I could not find the current constitution through the website, but that might have been because the website was so disorganized.  Luckily, one of the first databases I searched through contained the constitution that I still needed.  I searched around for additional primary documents to aid in my research, but I could not find anything besides excerpts of speeches that failed to directly correlate with my research.

If I ever wanted to research the democratization of other Latin American countries, I would have to spend countless hours trying to locate the countries’ constitutions.  I know that most Latin American countries have national archives that would have paper copies of the constitutions; however, I do not have the means to travel and read through all of these papers.  The fact that I was able to locate some Latin American constitutions, and all the Chilean constitutions, while sitting in Boise, Idaho exemplifies the benefits of having digitized primary sources on the internet.  While many primary sources have yet to be digitized, those that have been are available to anyone with internet access.  The opportunities are endless!  Historians of all types can benefit from the digitized sources already available.  With time, one can only hope that the amount of digitized sources will increase.  As for now, historical researchers should not confine themselves to only utilizing digitized primary sources; the fact remains that the internet only houses a minute percentage of the primary sources in existence.

Earthquake Extravaganza

After the main character is awoken by the earthquake, he realizes danger is afoot and he must traverse across town to rescue his family who is on holiday with their grandma.  Along the way, the character must deal with aftershocks, army patrols, and looters! All the while, he must deal with mother nature’s fury.  Check points along the way not only save the player’s progress, but also create a realistic sense of urgency.  The best part of the game, is that the checkpoints and obstacles are based upon real life data procured from newspaper articles detailing the events in 1906 San Fransisco.  If certain tasks are competed, certain family member’s life sources decrease.  Likewise, if specific items are procured, life members’ life sources will increase.  The entire point of the game is to reach his family members with the necessary foodstuffs and supplies before his family’s life sources deplete to potentially fatal levels.

Both time and place play an important role in this game.  Time is integral to the movement of the character, he is trying to get as far as possible before the next aftershock or military corps is found.  Place is also important in that the character must get from one side of town to the other in order to rescue his family.  Because of the historical and geographic nature of this game, time and place are truly linked; without time or place, the essence of the game would be lost.

Adam, Bahnu, Lucas, HannaLore

Interview with Dr. Tona Hangen

I decided to interview Dr. Tona Hangen, Assistant Professor at Worcester State University, a small public school in Massachusetts.  According to Dr. Hangen, Worcester State University only has a small library and the students do not have access to archival materials on campus.  It was her students’ inability to access the “raw materials of history” that prompted Dr. Hangen to create a digital environment that would allow her students to utilize real historical sources.  She explained that print journals and even books are increasingly accessed via digital media; however, she also explained the need for students and historians to be able to access primary sources, secondary sources, and academic conversations.

Dr. Hangen strives to build assignments around digital resources so that her students learn to navigate around the digital world while mastering their historical content.  Just as students must transform “from readers to makers of history” in the traditional classroom, Dr. Hangen hopes her students will “recognize digital material and use it as a legitimate source to recreate history.”  In order to ensure her students utilize reliable digital sources, she teaches her students to recognize markers of authenticity online.  In her freshmen courses, she has her students deconstruct a Wikipedia entry in its entirety to help them realize what really exists online and learn about what is going on behind the scenes.  After her students deconstruct Wikipedia entries, they realize the importance of “reading Wikipedia from the bottom up” in order judge the entry’s authenticity based upon the sources used to create the entry.

After beginning teaching at Worcester State University, Dr. Hangen was perplexed with a question, “How can I get my students interested in what I do and get them involved in the world they live in?”  She was able to make her dreams a reality when she created Digital Worcester, an online archive.  Digital Worcester began as individual student projects on the post-industrial city of Worcester, Massachusetts.  Dr. Hangen wanted to accumulate an archive of her student’s projects online, in order to preserve them instead of simply writing a paper and keeping it on file.  Moreover, Dr. Hangen wanted future students, as well as members of the community and interested historians, to be able to access the information.  Over time, Digital Worcester has evolved into a database combined with richer information, as around two hundred students’ projects have been added to date.  Of utmost importance to Dr. Hangen, Digital Worcester “allows her students to engage with the world around them and learn” history in a digital age.

Another way Dr. Hangen engages her students in the classroom is by using GoogleMaps, GoogleDocs and other Google sites.  As the Assistant Director of the Honors Program at Worcester State University, she utilizes GoogleDocs to create and disseminate surveys and forms.  GoogleSpreadsheets helps her to manage the Honors Program as well as her many classes.  She often schedules “workshop days” in her classes where everyone brings their laptops or tablets to collaboratively create and edit projects.  Dr. Hangen also uses WikiSpaces to enhance her students’ learning through discovery, something her students respond very well to.  Dr. Hangen clearly understands that students work best when they find the activities to be relevant to their own lives, something she demonstrates in the fact that she implements numerous digital aspects in her classroom.

With all of the technology Dr. Hangen implements, I assumed she must have had intense technological training while in school; however, I assumed wrong.  Dr. Hangen had “almost no technological training” besides “reading and writing blogs” before teaching.  She began working with the Omeka site shortly after starting to teach.  While working with the Omeka site, she began coding through experimentation.  She said that “working online is really a learning by doing experience,” that is to say, experimenting through trial and error.  Dr. Hangen said one of the greatest benefits of the digital humanities is that  “you must build things and experiment [by] getting your hands dirty.”  The digital humanities are uncommercialized and they encourage collaboration on all academic levels.  Keeping in line with the ethics of the digital humanities, Dr. Hangen is devoted to maintaining open resources for the online community of historians.  I found it inspiring that Dr. Hangen taught herself how to work in the increasingly digital world, all the while ensuring the newfound information was implemented in her classroom.

As far as advice for a future educator hoping to utilize the digital world to liven history up, Dr. Hangen said “don’t be afraid to experiment,” “don’t just take the safe route,” and that “it is really a good thing to try new things, anything to enhance the learning environment is a good thing.”  She also said that the most essential thing for effective teaching is to read about what actually works by combing through online blogs and archives.  Moreover, Dr. Hangen said that “deep learning necessitates action and ownership!”  Her work is truly an inspiration, an illustration of how a teacher who cares can truly impact their students by making history accessible through online networking.

Her website contains further information for anyone interested: